sunnuntai 21. elokuuta 2016

Frederic Cabanas: Marilyn Monroe

Frederic Cabanas on espanjalainen Marilynista kiinnostunut mies, joka paitsi on kirjoittanut useamman kirjan Marilynista myös pitää Euroopan ainoaa Marilyn-museota. Hänen kirjansa ovat keräilykappaleita, sillä niitä ei ihan joka kaupassa myydä. Cabanasin Marilyn in Spain on yksi kirja-aarteistani, ja keväällä sain toisenkin kirjan, ytimekkäästi nimetyn Marilyn Monroen.



Marilyn Monroe keskittyy Marilyn-kirjoihin. Cabanas on lajitellut ne viiteen kategoriaan:
1) Marilynista kertovat kirjat
2) Marilyniin viittaavat kirjat
3) Marilynin elokuvista kertovat kirjat
4) Romaanit, joissa viitataan Marilyniin
5) Lehdet, jotka on kokonaan omistettu Marilynille

Kirjassa on muutama esipuhe (myös englanniksi) ja sitten alkaa varsinainen luettelo. Kirjoista mainitaan tekijä, painos, ISBN-numero, hinta, kova- tai pehmeäkantisuus, kustantaja ja kieli. Mukana on myös kuvia kirjojen kansista. Luettelo sisältää yli 500 nimikettä, se on tarkka ja kirjan julkaisun aikoihin (1992) se on varmasti ollut loistava opas tarjolla oleviin Marilyn-kirjoihin. Cabanas huomauttaa, ettei luettelo ole täydellinen: se perustuu vain hänen omiin kokoelmiinsa!



Cabanasin Marilyn Monroe on kiinnostava pieni opus Marilyn-kirjojen maailmaan. Toivottavasti  siitä julkaistaan vielä uusi, täydennetty laitos, sillä 25 vuoden aikana on ehditty julkaista melko monta Marilyn-kirjaa ja veikkaanpa, että herra Cabanas on täydentäynyt niillä kokoelmiaan.



Frederic Cabanas is a Spanish Marilyn enthusiast, who not only has written several books on Marilyn but also has the only Marilyn Museum in Europe. His books are collectibles, because they're not that easy to find. Marilyn in Spain is one of my most treasured books, and this spring I got another of his books, simply titled Marilyn Monroe.




Marilyn Monroe focuses on the Monroe bibliography. Cabanas has sorted the books into five categories:
1) Books written on Marilyn Monroe
2) Books with reference to Marilyn Monroe
3) Novels of Marilyn Monroe's Films
4) Novels with reference to Marilyn Monroe
5) Full magazines on Marilyn Monroe

The book begins with a preface, acknowledgements, author's note and a short guide on how to read the book. These are all in English as well. After that, the listing begins: not only the title of the book but also the author, edition ISBN number, price, binding, publisher and language are mentioned. There are photos of some of the book covers. It includes over 500 titles, it is precise and when it was first published (in 1992) it must have been a great resource on MM books. Cabanas points out that the list is not complete: it's simply based on his own collection!




Marilyn Monroe by Cabanas is an interesting little book about Marilyn books. I hope there will be a second, revised edition someday because there have been quite a lot of Marilyn books published in the last 25 years, and I'm sure Mr. Cabanas has been adding to his collection.

keskiviikko 10. elokuuta 2016

April VeVea: Marilyn Monroe: A Day in the Life

Tätä kirjaa odotin innolla, joten tilasin sen heti kun se julkaistiin. Se saapui 3. elokuuta, siis samalla viikolla kuin oli Marilynin muistotilaisuus. En kuitenkaan malttanut antaa sen odottaa paria päivää, vaan tempaisin paketin auki ja ilahduin jo kauniista kannesta.



Marilyn Monroe: A Day in the Life on aikajana Marilynin elämästä. Varmasti monet fanit ovat koonneet aikajanoja jossain vaiheessa, mutta on hienoa, että sellainen on saatavana myös kirjana. April VeVea on tehnyt todella tarkkaa tutkimustyötä ja kirja on täynnä luotettavaa tietoa. On helpottavaa, kun ei lukiessa tarvitse koko ajan pohtia, pitäisikö tämänkin tiedon paikkaansapitävyys tarkistaa itse, vaan voi luottaa että kirjailija on tehnyt sen lukijan puolesta. Kirjassa on myös muutamia kuvia.

Kirja on erittäin kätevän kokoinen. Se ei ole valtava, joten sitä on helppo selailla ja tarkistaa, mitä Marilyn teki tiettynä päivänä. On kiinnostavaa nähdä, miten asiat liittyvät toisiinsa; tuntuu todellakin, että kävelee Marilynin jalanjäljissä. Marilyn ei ole vain myytti ja ikoni vaan myös elävä ihminen, joka kirjoitti shekkejä ja tapasi ystäviä.



Epäilen, ettei A Day in the Life koskaan pääse kirjahyllyyn asti, koska käytän sitä jatkuvasti. Kirja toimii erinomaisesti hakuteoksena, johon on helppo viitata. Suosittelen lämpimästi tutustumaan tähän kirjaan.



I've been waiting for this book to be published, so when it finally was, I ordered it almost immediately. It arrived on August 3rd, during the week when I think of Marilyn even more than usual. I was exited when the lovely cover emerged from the parcel, and I had to start reading it right away.

Marilyn Monroe: A Day in the Life is a timeline of Marilyn's life. I'm sure many Marilyn enthusiasts have compiled their own timelines at some point, but it's great to have on in book form. VeVea has done her research and the book is filled with information that's accurate and reliable. You don't get the feeling that you need to constantly check where the author got this or that information; instead, you feel like you can trust the book. There's also a photo section in the middle of the book.




The size of the book is very handy. It's not too huge so that you can easily check whatever date you need to check. It's easy to find what you're looking for. It's nice to see how things connect together; you really feel like you're tracing the footsteps of a person. Marilyn is not just a myth or an icon, she was also a living person who wrote checks and met friends.




I have a feeling that A Day in the Life is one of those books that never find their way to the bookshelf, because I'm constantly referring to them. It's a great reference book for whenever you need to check where Marilyn was or what she was doing on a certain date.  I highly recommend this book to any student of Marilyn.

perjantai 5. elokuuta 2016

54 vuotta sitten / 54 years ago

Marilyn Monroe kuoli hieman puolenyön jälkeen 5. elokuuta 1962. 54 vuotta ei kuitenkaan ole saanut Marilynia painumaan unholaan. Edelleen ihmiset ympäri maailmaa katsovat hänen elokuviaan, lukevat hänestä kirjoitettuja kirjoja ja vierailevat Marilyniin liittyvissä paikoissa. Puolen tunnin kuluttua Westwoodin hautausmaan kappelissa alkaa Marilynin muistotilaisuus, jota voi seurata netin kautta livenä Marilyn Remembered Fan Clubin Facebook-sivuilla. Marilynia muistellaan hyvällä edelleen.



Marilyn Monroe passed away shortly after midnight on August 5th, 1962. 54 years have not caused her to be forgotten. People around the world watch her movies, read books about her and visit places she once walked on. A memorial will begin in a half an hour at the chapel of Westwood Cemetery. You can watch it live on the Facebook page of Marilyn Remembered Fan Club. We're still holding a good thought for Marilyn.

keskiviikko 6. heinäkuuta 2016

James Dougherty: Secret Happiness of Marilyn Monroe

Yksi 90-vuotispäivän yhdeksästä kirjasta oli James Doughertyn Secret Happiness of Marilyn Monroe. Itse asiassa se oli ensimmäinen, jonka syntymäpäivää varten tilasin, ja kauheasti teki mieli tempaista se paketistaan heti sen saavuttua. Kun viimein pääsin lukemaan sitä, koko kirja hurahti kahdessa päivässä.



James Dougherty oli Marilynin ensimmäinen puoliso. Hän kirjoitti Marilynista, tai oikeastaan Norma Jeanesta, kaksi muistelmateosta: Secret Happiness of Marilyn Monroe ja To Norma Jeane, With Love, Jimmie. Dougherty on myös antanut haastatteluja ja esiintynyt Marilyn-dokumenteissa. Miksei olisi: hän kuuluu niihin ihmisiin, jotka todella tunsivat Marilynin jossain tämän elämänvaiheessa. Hän ei myöskään ole yrittänyt tehdä itsestään tärkeämpää kuin onkaan, vaan päinvastoin: Dougherty korostaa, ettei hän tuntenut Marilyn Monroeta. Hän tunsi Norma Jeanen.

Dougherty kertoo, kuinka hänen ja Norma Jeanen tarina sai alkunsa, kuinka se eteni ja kuinka se lopulta päättyi. Hänen mukaansa kumpikaan ei aluksi ajatellut toisesta sen ihmeempiä, mutta myöhemmin he rakastuivat toisiinsa. Doughertyn mukaan pari oli todella rakastunut eikä avioliitto ollut vain pakon edessä järjestetty. Marilyn itse usein mainitsi ensimmäisen avioliittonsa vain ohimennen, mihin Doughertylla on selitys: hänen toinen vaimonsa oli äärimmäisen mustasukkainen Doughertyn ensimmäisestä avioliitosta, eikä sallinut ensimmäisen vaimon nimeä mainittavan kotonaan. Doughertyn mukaan Marilyn tiesi tämän (Marilyn soitti kerran Doughertyille) eikä halunnut tuottaa mielipahaa Doughertyn vaimolle kertomalla liikoja ensimmäisestä avioliitostaan. Tämä selitys kuulostaa itse asiassa uskottavalta, sillä samalla tavalla Marilyn vältteli puhumasta äidistään – suojellakseen häntä. Marilynilla kuitenkin oli myös taipumus jättää asiat taakseen ja on mahdollista ettei hän senkään takia ole halunnut erityisesti puhua ensimmäisestä avioliitostaan.



Mitä Dougherty sitten kertoo? Dougherty kertoo ikäänsä nähden kypsästä mutta naiivista Norma Jeanesta, joka teki parhaansa yhteisen kodin eteen. Doughertyista hän sai itselleen perheen, kiintopisteen, jotain johon hän kuului. Norma Jeane oli Doughertyn mukaan hyvä vaimo, ahkera opettelemaan ruoanlaittoa ja siisteyttä arvostava. Norma Jeane oli myös hyvä ystävä, joka lähti miehensä mukaan kalastamaan tai ampumaan (tosin ei eläimiä). Hän kertoo myös parin seksielämästä, mutta kerrankin sen tekee joku, joka on todistetusti ollut paikalla. Tavallaan Dougherty myös odotti tällaista kuuliaisuutta vaimoltaan, sillä hän oli selvästi mies, joka oli omaksunut sen ajan käsitykset vaimon ja miehen perinteisistä rooleista. Se ei kuitenkaan tarkoita sitä, etteikö hän olisi arvostanut vaimoaan.

Kaiken kaikkiaan kirjasta saa hyvän kuvan siitä, millaisena Dougherty ensimmäistä avioliittoaan ja ensimmäistä vaimoaan muistelee. Pidin tästä ehkä enemmän kuin Doughertyn toisesta kirjasta yksinkertaisesti siksi, että tämä on tiiviimpi ja rakenteeltaan selkeämpi. Molemmat kirjat ovat kuitenkin hyviä – onneksi Dougherty jakoi muistonsa Norma Jeanesta meidän kaikkien kanssa. Hän oikeasti tunsi Norma Jeanen – vaikka vain muutaman vuoden ajan.



One of the 9 books for her 90th birthday was Secret Happiness of Marilyn Monroe by James Dougherty. Actually, it was the first one I ordered, and I really, really wanted to open it as soon as it arrived. When I finally got a chance to read it, it only took two days.

James Dougherty was Marilyn's first husband. He wrote two memoirs about his time with Norma Jeane: Secret Happiness of Marilyn Monroe and To Norma Jeane, With Love, Jimmie. Dougherty has also been interviewed for books and documentaries about Marilyn. And why not: he is one of those people who actually knew Marilyn at some point of her life. He never tried to make himself more important than he was: he always said that he never knew Marilyn Monroe. He knew Norma Jeane.




Dougherty tells how their story began, how it evolved and how it ended. According to him neither thought of the other in a romantic way in the beginning, but later they fell in love. He feels that they both were in love and that their marriage was not just conveniently arranged. Marilyn often mentioned her first marriage only in passing, but Dougherty has an explanation for that: his second wife was very jealous of his first wife, even to the point of banning her name in their home. According to Dougherty Marilyn knew this (she once phoned him) and didn't want to upset his wife by saying too much about the subject of their marriage. To me this sounds believable, because that is exactly why Marilyn didn't talk too much about her mother: to protect her. Marilyn also had a tendency to leave things and not look back, which is another possible reason for not talking about her first marriage.

So what does Dougherty tell us? Dougherty paints a picture of the mature yet naive Norma Jeane, who did her best in making a home. The Doughertys became a family for her, something she could say she belonged to. According to Dougherty, Norma Jeane was a good wife, eager to learn to cook and keeping the house spotlessly clean. She was also a good friend who went fishing and shooting (although not animals) with her husband. He also shares details about their sex life, but at least he is someone who was actually there. In a way Dougherty seems to have expected his wife to be obedient, as it's clear that he was a man of his times when it came to the roles of husband and wife, man and woman. That doesn't mean he didn't appreciate what she did.




Overall, this book gives us a clear picture of how Dougherty remembers his first marriage and his first wife. I think I prefer this one over his second book, simply because this is more concise (in a good way). Both books are nice to have, and I'm glad Dougherty decided to share his memories with us. After all, he really did know her, even if for a couple of years.

sunnuntai 3. heinäkuuta 2016

Marilyn Lontoossa / Marilyn in London / Marilyn's Addresses & Marilyn's Footsteps by Michelle Morgan (Finn)

Jopa on otsikko. Koko tämänkertainen postaus on tavallisesta poikkeava, sillä esittelen kaksi kirjaa (ja vähän kolmatta ja neljättäkin), mutta lisäksi keskityn kaupunkiin, jossa juuri vierailin: Lontooseen. Miten Lontoo sitten liittyy Marilyniin (ja Marilyn-kirjoihin)?

Lontoon reissu tuli vähän puun takaa. Yleensä suunnittelen matkat huolellisesti ainakin puoli vuotta etukäteen, luen matkaoppaita, otan selvää missä haluan käydä ja muutenkin elän tulevasta matkasta. Nyt kävi toisin: toukokuun lopulla avattiin Marilyn-näyttely, jonne oli pakko päästä, joten parin päivän harkinta-ajalla varasin reissun. Hups. Varauksesta oli onneksi vielä jonkin aikaa itse reissuun, joten ehdin silti lukea matkaoppaita, ottaa selvää missä haluan käydä ja muutenkin elää tulevasta matkasta. Lähdin matkaan hyvin varustautuneena kahden Marilyn-kirjan kanssa: Michelle Morganin Marilyn's Footsteps sekä Marcelline Blockin Fan Phenomena: Marilyn.




Nuo kaksi kirjaa eivät kuitenkaan jääneet matkan ainoiksi Marilyn-kirjoiksi. Lontoossa on useita upeita kirjakauppoja, jonne tietenkin ryntäsin. Silti sain hillittyä itseni (ja useimmat kirjat sitäpaitsi löytyvät jo hyllystäni) ja ostin vain kaksi Marilyn-kirjaa, nekin heti matkan alussa. Veimme laukut hotelliin ja lähdimme metrolla kohti Portobello Roadia. Emme ehtineet edes Portobellolle asti, kun ensimmäinen kirjakauppa houkutteli sisään. Sieltä löysin Lifen Remembering Marilyn-kirjan kahdella punnalla. Kun pääsimme Portobellolle, siellä oli eräässä kirjakojussa ainakin kymmenen Marilyn-kirjaa. Sieltä löysin pitkään metsästämäni Marilyn's Addressesin.



Marilyn's Adresses ja Marilyn's Footsteps ovat keskenään sisarukset. Kirjailija on sama, vaikka sukunimi on välissä ehtinyt muuttua Finnistä Morganiksi. Marilyn's Addresses on alaotsikkonsa mukaisesti "A Fan's Guide to the Places She Knew" eli opas Marilynille tuttuihin paikkoihin. Se julkaistiin ensimmäisen kerran vuonna 1995, joten vuonna 2012 aika oli kypsä päivitetylle versiolle nimeltä Marilyn's Footsteps. Kirjojen rakenne ja sisältö on pääasiassa sama, mutta Footstepsissä on  uudempaa tietoa kun taas Addressesissa on kuvia. Kumpikin kirja kattaa maailmanlaajuisesti Marilyniin liittyvät paikat aina kouluista teattereihin, Los Angelesista Englantiin. Paikoista kiinnostuneena halusin molemmat kirjat hyllyyni.

Tämän matkan kannalta erityistä oli se, että sekä Marilyn's Addresses että Marilyn's Footsteps kattavat myös Iso-Britannian. Lontoo on Marilyn-kohde paitsi näyttelyiden vuoksi, myös siksi että Marilyn vieraili siellä. Aivan kaikkia Marilyn-kohteita en ehtinyt nähdä, enkä kaikista näkemistäni ehtinyt saada kuvaa, mutta joissain olisin käynyt ilman Marilyn-yhteyttäkin. Sekä Marilyn's Addresses että Marilyn's Footsteps ovat kokonsa puolesta sopivia myös matkalle mukaan otettaviksi. Jompikumpi oli käsilaukussani koko matkan ajan.



Ensimmäinen kohde oli Heathrow'n lentokenttä, jonne koneemme laskeutui. Marilynkin laskeutui samalle kentälle, tosin kenttä on sen jälkeen kokenut melkoisia muutoksia. Lentokentältä jatkoimme hotelliin, sieltä Portobello Roadille ja sieltä Design Center Chelsea Harbouriin, jossa oli koko matkan pääkohde: Marilyn-näyttely. Kaikki näyttelyssä ollut sekä paljon muuta huutokaupataan marraskuussa Los Angelesissa. En ole koskaan aiemmin nähnyt Marilynin pukuja tai muita tavaroita, ja kokemus oli ihmeellinen. Tämän jälkeen kävelimme reilun kilometrin matkan Fulhamiin, jossa oli toinen Marilyn-näyttely, tällä kertaa valokuvia.



Kun kerran Lontoossa ollaan, pitää nähdä tiettyjä perusnähtävyyksiä. Samoin teki Marilyn aikanaan. Michelle Morgan on kirjoittanut paitsi opaskirjat, myös erinomaisen elämäkerran Private & Undisclosed. Ensimmäinen versio on ihanan iso, mutta toinen, uudistettu versio on pokkari. Siinä on tarkasti selitetty Marilynin vierailu Englannissa. Kirjan mukaan Marilyn ihasteli Big Benin kuminaa, halusi ehdottomasti nähdä National Galleryn, ja puhdisti hattuaan suihkulähteessä Trafalgar Squarella, kun pulu oli  päästänyt läjän sen reunukselle.



Marilyn oli innokas lukija, ja Morganin mukaan hän kiiti innolla Foyle's-kirjakauppaan. Niin tein tietysti minäkin. Myös Piccadilly Circuksella kävelin Marilynin jalanjäljissä. Kun äitini halusi Marks&Spencerille, ehdotin tiettyä liikettä – samaa jossa Marilynkin kävi. Kävin kuvaamassa myös Quaglino's-ravintolan, jossa Marilyn söi, sekä Savoy-hotellin, jossa hänellä oli lehdistötilaisuus.



Matkansa aikana Marilyn sai osittain olla rauhassa tunnistamattomana, mutta kävi myös niin, että hänen ympärilleen kertyi väkijoukko ihmisten tunnistettua hänet. Näin kävi mm. Bond Streetilla ja Regent Streetillä. Marilyn myös vieraili valtavassa Harrods-tavaratalossa, jossa väkijoukko saartoi hänet. Lontoossa on tietysti myös useampi teatteri, jossa Marilyn vieraili. Hän tapasi kuningatar Elizabethin Leicester Squarella sijaitsevassa Empire Theatressa ja osallistui kaksituntiseen keskusteluun brittiläisestä draamasta Royal Court Theatressa Slone Squarella. Arthur Millerin näytelmän ensi-illassa Comedy Theatressa Marilynilla oli päällään upea punainen puku, ja Lyric Theatressa Millerit ja Laurence Olivier ihailivat Vivien Leighiä lavalla. Lyricistä matka jatkui muuten Olivierien kotiin Lowndes Placella, jossa Millerit viihtyivät aamukahteen saakka.



Marilyn's Addresses tai Marilyn's Footsteps kannattaa siis pakata mukaan, jos lähdet Marilyn-kohteiden perään maailmalle. Kaikki tämän postauksen Marilyn-paikkoihin liittyvä tieto on peräisin jommastakummasta kirjasta, ellei toisin mainita. Lopuksi vielä yksi kuva Chelsean uskomattomasta Marilyn-näyttelystä.



I think that has got to be the longest title I've ever had for a blog post. And the whole post is going to be a bit different than usual, because not only am I reviewing two books (and letting you know about a third and a fourth one), I'm also concentrating on a city I just visited: London.  But what has London got to do with Marilyn (books)?

Usually, when it comes to traveling, I plan carefully. I make reservations at least six months in advance, read guide books, find out what I want to see and basically live for the trip ahead. This time it was different: a Marilyn exhibition opened in London in late May, I knew I had to go there, so in only a couple of days I had booked the trip. Whoops. Luckily there was still some time until the actual trip, so I still had time to read guide books, find out what I wanted to see and basically live for the trip ahead. I left home well prepared, with two Marilyn books: Marilyn's Footsteps by Michelle Morgan and Fan Phenomena: Marilyn by Marcelline Block.



Those two books weren't the only MM books of my trip though. There are several gorgeous bookstores in London, and naturally I had to visit. I managed to control myself (and besides, I have most of the titles they had anyways), and only bought two books, right at the start of our trip. After landing, we left our luggage to the hotel and took the tube to Notting Hill Gate, close to Portobello Road. We didn't even make it to Portobello Road when the first bookshop lured me in. I found Life Remembering Marilyn for two pounds. When we made it to Portobello Road, there were at least ten different MM books in one stall. That's where I finally found Marilyn's Addresses.

Marilyn's Addresses and Marilyn's Footsteps are sister books. They are both by the same author, even if her last name has changed from Finn to Morgan between the books. Marilyn's Addresses is "A Fan's Guide to the Places She Knew" and it was published in 1995, so in 2012 time was ripe for a new, revised and updated book called Marilyn's Footsteps. Of course the books are similar, but Footsteps has newer information whereas Addresses has photos. Both books cover Marilyn places all around the world, from schools to theaters, from Los Angeles to England. As I'm interested in locations I definitely wanted both books.



Like I already mentioned, both Marilyn's Addresses and Marilyn's Footsteps also cover England. London is a great place for a Marilyn fan not only because of the two stunning exhibitions but because Marilyn also visited the city. Since we only had four days I didn't visit each and every Marilyn location in London, but I saw plenty. Also, both Marilyn's Addresses and Marilyn's Footsteps fit easily in your bag, so they're easy to carry around when traveling.

Our first MM location was actually Heathrow airport, where our plane landed. Marilyn also landed there, although back then it was quite different. From the airport we continued to our hotel, to Portobello Road, and finally to Design Center Chelsea Harbour, the whole reason for our trip: Marilyn Monroe Legacy of a Legend exhibition. Everything in the exhibition and so much more will be auctioned off in November. I had never seen Marilyn's costumes or other belongings before, so it was a wonderful and amazing experience. From there we walked to Fulham since there was a MM photo exhibition.



Of course you just have to see some of the main sights in London. That's what Marilyn did too. Michelle Morgan has written not only the guidebooks but also an excellent biography, Private & Undisclosed. The first edition is beautiful and large, but the second edition came out in paperback and it has a very detailed description of Marilyn's stay in England. According to the book Marilyn admired the chime of Big Ben, wanted to see the National Gallery and tried to wash her hat in a fountain in Trafalgar Square after a pigeon went 'splat' on the brim.

Marilyn was an avid reader, and according to Morgan she made a beeline to Foyle's bookshop. So did I. I also walked in Marilyn's footsteps in Piccadilly Circus. When my mom wanted to go to Marks&Spencer, I suggested the one on Oxford Street, because Marilyn also shopped there. I also took a photo of Quaglino's restaurant, where Marilyn dined, and Savoy Hotel, where Marilyn had a press conference.



During her visits to London Marilyn sometimes managed to go around unnoticed, but other times she was recognized and mobbed. That happened to her on Bond Street and Regent Street. Marilyn also visited the enormous Harrods store, but was crowded. There are of course several theaters in London, which she went to. She met the Queen at the Empire Theatre on Leicester Square, and took part in a two-hour discussion on British drama in Royal Court Theatre on Slone Square. For the opening of Arthur Miller's play in Comedy Theatre Marilyn wore a red dress, and in Lyric Theatre the Millers and Laurence Olivier saw Vivien Leigh on stage. From Lyric Theatre the Millers and the Oliviers continued to the Oliviers' home on Lowndes Place, and the Millers didn't leave until two in the morning.



As you can see, you should really pack Marilyn's Addresses or Marilyn's Footsteps with you if you're traveling and want to know where Marilyn went to. All of the information here comes from these two books, unless otherwise stated. Let's end this long post with one last photo from the Chelsea exhibition.




keskiviikko 1. kesäkuuta 2016

9 kirjaa 90-vuotissyntymäpäivänä / 9 books for her 90th birthday

Olen kevään aikana toteuttanut ideaa, jonka sain pääsiäislomalla. Kaikki lähti siitä uskomattomasta tuurista, joka minulla on tänä vuonna ollut Marilyn-kirjojen suhteen sekä siitä, että Marilynin 90-vuotissyntymäpäivä lähestyy, ja halusin juhlia sitä erityisellä tavalla.

Sitten keksin: hankin yhdeksän kirjaa 90-vuotissyntymäpäiväksi.

Syntymäpäiväjuhlakirjat eivät tietenkään voi olla ihan mitä hyvänsä kirjoja. Halusin niiden olevan a) hyviä ja b) keskenään hieman erityyppisiä. Mielellään myös c) edullisia. Amazonin ja eBayn kyttäys alkoi siis samantien, ja uudempia kirjoja etsin myös eri verkkokaupoista. Minulla ei ollut alusta alkaen selvää listaa yhdeksästä kirjasta, vaan lista eli hieman tilanteiden mukaan. Eniten jännitin erästä, jota metsästin eBaysta uskomattoman edulliseen hintaan, ja minun piti herätä viideltä aamulla varmistamaan, että saisin sen. Ja sain.

Jännitystä lisäsi se, että kun kirjoja sitten hiljalleen alkoi putkahdella postiluukusta, en avannut paketteja heti vaan säästin ne 90-vuotispäiväksi. Tässä lisäohjelmaa järjesti puolisoni, joka piilotti kaikki yhdeksän pakettia ympäri asuntoa. 90-vuotispäivän juhlaohjelmaan kuului siis aarteenetsintä.

9 kirjaa 90-vuotissyntymäpäivänä

Sidney Skolsky: Marilyn (1954)
- tätä en uskonut koskaan saavani, sillä sen hinta kiipii yleensä yli satasen  – paitsi tällä kertaa, kun sitä aamuviideltä huusin eBaysta
- miksi hankin: yksi ensimmäisistä Marilyn-kirjoista, ja siksi merkittävä osa Marilyn-kirjastoa

Edwin Hoyt: Marilyn, the Tragic Venus (1967)
- yksi ensimmäisistä Marilyn-elämäkerroista
- miksi hankin: kiinnosti minua juuri ikänsä vuoksi, sillä monet tarinat ovat Hoytilta peräisin

Wagenknecht: Marilyn, A Composite View (1969)
- kirja kokoaa yhteen Marilynin omia haastatteluja sekä muiden muisteluita Marilynista
-miksi hankin: on kuvauksensa perusteella ehdoton osa Marilyn-kirjakokoelmaa

James Dougherty: Secret Happiness of Marilyn Monroe (1976)
- ensimmäisen aviomiehen ensimmäinen kirja, jonka sain todella edullisesti ja joka aloitti yhdeksän kirjan haalimisen
- miksi hankin: kirja on kiinnostanut pitkään, ja edustaa Marilynin tunteneiden ihmisten muistelmia Wagenknechtin ohella

Ernest Cunningham: Ultimate Marilyn (1998)
- hauska triviakirja Marilyn Encyclopedian ja Unabridged Marilynin tyyliin
- miksi hankin: puhtaasti viihteen ja triviaihastuksen vuoksi

Lawrence Maslon: Some Like It Hot - 50th Anniversary Companion (2009)
- Piukat paikat on loistava elokuva, joten ison Taschenin opuksen lisäksi minua kiinnosti myös tämä paljon kehuttu kirja
- miksi hankin: pitäähän yhden kirjoista keskittyä jollain tavalla Marilynin työhön

Henry-Jean Servat: Marilyn La Legende (2012)
- ranskalainen teos, jossa on runsaasti kuvia
- miksi hankin: tässä listassa kuvaa Marilynin kansainvälistä suosiota

Tara Hanks: The Mmm Girl (2015)
- vihdoin sain hankittua Taran romaanin, joka kertoo Marilynin tarinan hänen äänellään
- miksi hankin: paljon kehuttu romaani on kiinnostanut jo kauan, ja edustaa kaunokirjallisuutta sekä fanien tuotantoa

Marcelline Block: Fan Phenomena - Marilyn Monroe (2015)
- tarkastelee Marilynia nykypäivänä: miksi Marilyn vetoaa edelleen?
- miksi hankin: koska Marilynin elämä jatkuu niin kauan, kuin hänet muistetaan



I got a fabulous idea for Marilyn's birthday around Easter. It all started with the amazing luck I've been having with Marilyn books lately and the fact that this year Marilyn would turn 90. That was the beginning of the Nine Books for Her 90th Birthday project.

Birthday books obviously can't just be any random MM books. I wanted them to be a) good, b) somehow each of them a bit different, and c) preferably, well, cheap. I started hunting books from Amazon and eBay as well as other online bookstores. I did not have a set list of nine books from the beginning, as I wasn't sure which books I'd be able to get. In the end, I was very happy with my choices. I even woke up at 5 am for a book that was on eBay... and I got it.

To add to the excitement, I asked my boyfriend to hide the books from me until June 1st. So as they started arriving, he hid each and every one of them. I had a treasure hunt, which was a lovely way to find each book and made the whole thing even more special.

9 Books for Her 90th Birthday

Marilyn by Sidney Skolsky (1954)
- I never thought I'd get this one as it is usually way too expensive
- why did I get it: as one of the first MM books it's an important and interesting book to have in your MM library

Marilyn, The Tragic Venus by Edwin Hoyt (1967)
- one of the first MM biographies
- why did I get it: because it was written so shortly after her death, it has interested me for a long time

Marilyn, A Composite View by Wagenknecht (1969)
- a compilation of Marilyn's interview as well as interviews of those who knew her
- why did I get it: based on the description it is a must have in your MM library

Secret Happiness of Marilyn Monroe by James Dougherty (1976)
- the first book by her first husband was also the first of the nine that I got
- why did I get it: it has interested me for a long time and, along with Wagenknecht's book, represents the memories of those who knew Marilyn

Ultimate Marilyn by Ernest Cunningham (1998)
- a fun trivia book similar to Marilyn Encyclopedia and Unabridged Marilyn
- why did I get it: pure entertainment and my love for trivia

Lawrence Maslon: Some Like It Hot - 50th Anniversary Companion (2009)
- Some Like It Hot is an excellent movie, so even if I already have the huge Taschen book, I was interested in this one too
- why did I get it: one of the books has to focus on Marilyn's work


Henry-Jean Servat: Marilyn La Legende (2012)
- a French book with lots of photos
- why did I get it: it represents the universal appeal of Marilyn

Tara Hanks: The Mmm Girl (2015)
- finally I got Tara's novel, which tells the story of Marilyn as she might have told it herself
- why did I get it: the novel has received much praise and it represents books written by fans

Marcelline Block: Fan Phenomena - Marilyn Monroe (2015)
- takes a look at Marilyn today: why are people still interested in her?
- why did I get it: because Marilyn lives on as long as people remember her


sunnuntai 22. toukokuuta 2016

Interview with Gary Vitacco-Robles, author of ICON

In honor of Marilyn's 90th birthday, we have something special for you: and interview with Gary Vitacco-Robles, author of ICON: The Life, Times & Films of Marilyn Monroe, Volumes 1&2 and Cursum Perficio: Marilyn Monroe's Brentwood Hacienda. I can fully recommend Gary's books, and have often wondered what it takes to write such detailed, wonderfully researched books that do justice to Marilyn, so let's hear from Gary himself.


Gary Vitacco-Robles, photo credit Tamera Weyers Patrick


1. Your biography of Marilyn Monroe, Icon, is a detailed, monumental book that was published in two volumes. What prompted you to write a biography of Marilyn?

After reading exploitative and scurrilous biographies of Marilyn over the years, I was driven to tell her story based upon fact and with empathy. Many biographies are completely inaccurate and relay upon questionable sources or fabricated stories which are repeated by author after author until they are believed as truth. People whom I interviewed who actually knew Marilyn, such as Evelyn Moriarty, her stand-in, told me Marilyn was completely unrecognizable in the biographies they had read and in film documentaries they had watched. This is a travesty.

As a licensed mental health counselor and national certified counselor with experience in trauma-informed care, I interpreted Marilyn’s life within the context of her being a survivor of childhood complex trauma who displayed symptoms consistent with the diagnoses of Borderline Personality Disorder, Post-traumatic Stress Disorder, and the Bipolar Spectrum. She clearly experienced recurrent episodes of depression and also mixed episodes that included symptoms of hypomania or mania. For over twenty years, I have been a treatment provider for many children and adults, many with these disorders, and I have developed a keen eye for identifying the symptoms. I identifed them in Marilyn’s journal entries and drawings and in the testimonies of those who knew or observed her. To tell her story without the context of trauma and mental illness completely misses the mark. Male biographers have been especially disrespectful to her, misogynistic, in my opinion. As a male biographer, I hoped for redemption or, at least, a corrective experience for the reader.

Marilyn was and remains an American Treasure. She survived a childhood marked by trauma to become a psychological, cultural, and spiritual phenomenon of the Twentieth Century. She is one of us, the masses, only her start was far worse than many of ours; yet she made it, and never lost sight of from where she originated, and related to those who struggled, the working man. Marilyn worked hard and was honest about her limitations, she studied acting at the height of her fame and had a deliciously appealing self-deprecating humor. She revealed her soul and her humanity. We can all relate to these qualities. Part of Marilyn’s enduring appeal may be the empathy her pain and life experiences evoke in each of us. She inspires us to project our own subjective interpretations onto her extraordinary life. Marilyn’s life was remarkable, and her story inspirational. Her tragic ending does not diminish this.

Historical context was also important to me as well as serious exploration of her career and work, often lost in stories of her personal challenges. I was striving for accuracy and had access to Marilyn’s personal letters, diaries, journals, notes on dreams, and receipts. With many of her authenticated personal files being auctioned, the information was readily available and seemingly spoke the truth. Marilyn’s voice is clear through her own writing.

Also, her story is incomplete without mention of those whose lives she touched. The biography becomes an exploration of mid-twentieth century America, as she networked with so many illustrious notables in many fields and had meaningful relationships with a wide variety of people, She befriended Truman Capote, Carson McCullers, Christopher Isherwood, Dylan Thomas, Carl Sandberg, Frank Lloyd Wright, Dame Edith Sitwell, Fluer Fenton Cowles, Bertha Spafford Vester, Karen von Blixen (aka Isak Dinesen). I also had the pleasure of interviewing Patricia Newcomb, her last press agent and friend; a gentleman, who as a boy, conversed with Marilyn as he built a sandcastle on Redington Beach, FL, in 1961; and the gentleman from whom she purchased canine vitamin for Hugo, her Basset Hound, in New York.

Rather than focus on those celebrities or public figures with whom she is alleged to have had personal relationships, I focused on those non-famous families with whom she actually shared meaningful relationships like Sam and Anne Shaw and children, Norman and Hedda Rosten and their daughter, Lee and Paula Strasberg and children, Romeo and Hildi Greenson and chidden, Milton and Amy Greene, Ralph Roberts, Rupert Allan and life partner, Frank and Nan Taylor and children, and the teens and young people known as The Monroe Six, who trailed her in Manhattan.



2. It must have been an enormous task to write a book that covers the whole lifetime of someone as famous as Marilyn. How long did it take to research and write Icon?

Enormous, indeed! It was like scaling a mountain! I continued to collect information and research after publishing the first edition of Cursum Perficio in 2000. During that time, my plan was to write a book comprised of a series of articles about Marilyn’s major films, her significant relationships, and various themes in her life, not a comprehensive biography. Overall, I believe there was a total of a decade of serious research since I became more focused in 2005.

I started writing in 2006 and expanded my goal to a full-length, comprehensive biography shortly thereafter. I created a Word document for each year and each major film in Marilyn’s life and started filling the files with information. It was an overwhelming process, but I focused taking one step and then another, without pressuring myself with a deadline. I did not write in chronological order, as I was inspired by various periods of her life. I started with the production of Niagara, the Miller years, the Actor’s Studio era, and then her final year. I progressed to her ancestry and birth. In fact, I ended with the early years of her career.

While writing, I would play music of the particular time period I was covering, and wrote mostly on Fridays, as I work four ten and a half hour days Monday through Thursday. Toward the end of the project, I targeted a deadline; I needed to land the plane. I started writing through the weekends and in the evenings after my gym workouts. My husband, Oscar, was tremendously supportive. He had gone back to college later in life, and that required a time commitment; having finsished graduate school early in our relationship, this project was my equivalent of going back to college, for example for a PhD degree. So the time investment for Icon, in a way, was like the time investment for a doctoral dissertation!

In the end, when I finally reviewed the product of my writing and stared merging all the individual Word documents, I realized I had over 1800 pages in Word. Writing online, I had failed to realize the enormous output I had created. Consequently, the editing and publishing process took nearly a year! I left a publisher who wanted drastic deletions; so I dissolved the relationship and partnered with BearManor Media. Ben Ohmart, the owner, owner supported a concept of two volumes to retain much of the content.

In 2010, my laptop fried along with a jump drive with many updated files I had failed to secure in another format; I was devastated and had to make a decision to abandon the project or recreate it. I realized Marilyn had persevered, so I could not give up and abandon her; her resiliency provided the strength I needed to keep going, even if it required a re-creation of lost work. However, I sent the fried jump drive to a company in Seattle that was able to retrieve all the files at the cost of $1200.




3. What part of the process did you enjoy the most (researching, writing, editing, something else)?

My favorite is the research. It’s like searching for treasuure, but then becoming tangential and finding many other things and learning about so much more through the process. I would veer off the path and down rabbit holes. Along the way, I met many interesting people like a woman who managed Frank Lloyd Wright’s archive—this was when I researching the architect designing a home for Marilyn and Arthur Miller; the plans were eventually used to build a golf clubhouse in Hawaii. I could spend an entire day searching for something and celebrate finding a tiny gold nugget many hour later. Ultimately, the process of researching another person’s life provides insight into one’s own life. I sometimes cannot believe I researched, wrote and published it—especially since time has distanced me. I now go back and read what I wrote from the eyes of the reader. I have to stop and think, “I really did this!” The most rewarding part is to hear the feedback from the readers, how much the book resonated with them, how much they enjoyed it. I love hearing from the readers and maintain contact with them in my Facebook group for the book. I especially like when they take selfies with both volumes and I can see their faces. The expressions convey even more than their written comments.


4. Reading Icon, I especially enjoyed how you wrote about Marilyn in a honest, truthful and positive way. Do you feel she has been treated unjustly, ie. the focus has sometimes been on the negative rather than the positive?

I wrote ICON as a therapist and from the perspective of a therapist. As a therapist, I identify and celebrate strengths and build upon them. I reframe situations for people and identify the positive aspects of situation for others who are overwhelmed by the negative and can no longer identify the positive. I search for the underlying issue, the root. I avoid lables like “good” and “bad” which indicate a restrictive “black and white” way of thinking. I am trained to look for and to live in the “gray” where life really exists. I can validate both sides of opposting positions and operate from the belief that events, people and situations contain both sides, not one or the other. Things aren’t always mutually exclusive. Relationships and people aren’t all good or all both; they are combinations of both. I don’t judge people.

Marilyn has been maligned by biographers who imply don’t know any better; they just don’t know what they don’t know. They are making a living by writing and selling their book. I wasn’t interested in profiting. I wanted to offer a truly academic exploration of Marilyn’s notable life, a definitive biography that would last for another generation. Other authors minimized, denied her issues and judged her; and in doing so, they judged their readers who have experienced what Marilyn experienced. As I said earlier, her story cannot accurately be told without the context of child development, the impact of  trauma, genetics, and mental illness. This isn’t about a subject’s character, it is about genetics and brain development. As a culture, we don’t know enough about these issues, but I have dedicated my life to the study of these issues, educating others about them, supporting clents in recovery from thises issues. When some biographers have attempted to analyze Marilyn’s romantic relationships, ambition to become a serious actresws, her sometimes erratic behavior on set, and misuse of of prescribed medication, those biographers may not have had insight into topics such as long term impact of childhood sexual abuse & negleclt, the co-occurrence of mental illness and addiction, etc. I felt qualified based upon my professional experience and perspective.  

Writing a biography is a tremendous responsibility. And one cannot ethically or successfully research and write about another person’s life without coming from a place of respect and understanding. The selection of sources is also paramount. In Marilyn’s case, an author cannot merely cannot repeat what was already written, one must trace back to the original source.




5. You have also written a book of her Brentwood home: Cursum Perficio. How was writing Icon different from writing Cursum Perficio?

Cursum Perficio was my dress-rehearsal for ICON. It was a homemake Valentine. I didn’t intend to take on the enormity of a full-length biopgraphy. I wanted to side-step Marilyn’s death and produce something different than what had been mass-produced about her in the 1980s. I used the metaphor of her renovation of the home and that unfinished project as a means to explore her unfinished life, her introspective journey in those final month as she rebounded and recoved from a series of negative events: divorce, psychiatric crisis, career crisis. Her settling in Brentwood was a corrective experience for a nomadic lifestyle. I believed the renovation was an externalization or representation of what she sought to accomplish internally.

That book depicted Marilyn as a real woman and not a sexy celebiry. She was a reader, a homemaker, an interior decorator who traveled to Mexico to aquire authentic furnishings, a gardener who pulled weeds while wearing a straw hat, a woman who prepared meals using the copper pots and pans in kitchen and her well-worn Joy of Cooking book. She was a friend to those who worked behind the cameras who gave away possessions and clothing when a friend admired them. The book also includes the psychology behind what she was doing as it involved her psychotherapy and relationship with Dr. Romeo Greenson and his family, who had oddly taken her into their family sysem as a surrogate family member.


6. How did you become interested in Marilyn?

I remember being haunted my Marilyn’s image in childhood. Images of her face was everywhere in the 1970s. I heard she was a glamorous, sexy woman who took her own life, but I didn’t see the pin-up. Her eyes were soulful and mesmerizing. I saw deep into her eyes; I saw the intensity, the pain, the longing. Then I saw The Prince and the Showgirl and Bus Stop. Even at 11 or 12, I found her performances as touching, her personality as enormously endearing, vulnerable, and intriguing. I sensed something in her I couldn’t then identify and felt close to her, wanted to know more about her. I began reading about her and was amazed by her resilience and humanity. I suddenly added her to my litmus test of a warm heart in others. If people didn’t like puppies, babies, the elderly, or Marilyn Monroe, I determined they had a lack of capacity for compassion.




7. What period(s) of her life interests you the most?

This is the most difficult question. I am challenged to focus on a specific period, but I am drawn to a few.

I drawn to the Miller years, when Marilyn was an affluent wife and hostess exercised her domesticity. She had achieved great career success and continued studying at the Actor’s Studio. She was involved with New York’s literati and enjoying a persona life in Connecticut and Long Island. She was decorating her Manhattan apartment, entertaining guests, cooking, planning a family. There was hope, happiness, and stability in the early years of this period. Marilyn was gaining power and making progress; however, this is also when her depressive episodes increased and intensified and when her mood disturbances exacerbated. I felt this period was glossed over in previous biographies and was filled with valuable information about who Marilyn really was when she wasn’t a film star. It was also filled with personal stories from her personal relationships with non-celebrities. I was fascinated by these relationships.

Marilyn’s childhood shaped who she became. Early childhood attachments and experiences impact development, and now brain research shows us that negative or traumatic childhood experiences rewire the brain and can change the trajectory of a life. These years explain her challenges, her resiliency, and her strength. Although these years are filled with heartbreak and are difficult to explore, it is the root of what we know followed. As a mental health therapist, I wanted to tease through this period with a fine tooth comb to truly understand her experience.

The Actor’s Studio period in which Marilyn liberated her self from the film industry and the west coast culture intrigued me. She emancipated and took a risk by relocating to New York to study and to develop, to fulfill her potential. I wanted to know more about her stage performances, her personal journey of introspection and growth, her engagement in psychoanalysis (not a modality that suited her trauma history, but best practices of the era). She journaled extensively during this period, providing us with insights into her psyche. She fought against her insecurity and depression to demand more for herself and of herself. It was so brave, so strong. I really admire her tenacity during this period. ICON covered this period in several chapers while many biographies cover it in one.

I am also drawn to the last eight months of her life, the renovation of the Brentwood hacienda, her last film, the impact of her work with Dr. Romeo Greenson. There was a wealth of information about this period which covers an entire section of ICON, several chapters. Her life in Los Angeles was in many ways so different from her public image. I like that discrepancy, who the public thinks she is and who she really was. I now have very strong feelings about this period because of the reckless prescribing practices of Dr. Engelberg, her internist, and the rogue behavior of Dr. Greenson, whose boundaries became atrocious—egregious behaviors on the parts of these doctors.


8. What are your favorite Marilyn Monroe books?

My favorite is the first I ever read, Norman Jean: The Life of Marilyn Monroe by Fred Lawrence Guiles (the 1969 version, not his 1984 Legend) and Marilyn Monroe by Maurice Zolotow (1960). I especially enjoyed Sam Shaw and Norman Rosten’s Marilyn Among Friends, Rosten’s Marilyn; The Untold Story, and My Story by Marilyn Monroe with Ben Hect. 

Michelle Morgan’s Marilyn Monroe Private and Undisclosed is one of the best in the 21st century, written by someone of the generation born following Marilyn’s death. Michelle is my writing and publishing mentor, and I just adore her; she is a prolific writer. Donald Spoto’s Marilyn Monroe: The Biography is epic, although I disagree with his analysis of her death. 

I love Marilyn’s interviews with Alan Levy for Redbook in 1962, Richard Meryman for Life in 1962, and Georges Belmont for Marie Claire in 1960.



9. If you could meet Marilyn, what would you say to her? Is there something specific you would like to ask her?

First, I would have to invade her boundaries and give her a warm, tight embrace. I think I would tell her how significant she has become in my life, like a deceased family member—gone before I was born—and thank her for the inspiration she has provided for me and countless others. This sounds bizarre, but I think rather than focus on all questions, I would tell her things & offer her hope. I would tell her life will get better. Treatment modalities for depression and bipolar disorder will improve. There will be mood stabilizing medications that will bring regulation and stability. The role of women will expand. The film industry will change dramatically. The future will provide more opportunities for power and control over her career. The culture will evolve in many positive ways that will make her life better. Staying alive another ten years will place you in a world far different than 1962.

In term of asking questions, probably nothing earth-shattering. In this fantasy, I guess I am meeting her after death, so I would ask her personal reaction to the enormous impact she had made on so many diverse people across the globe for over five decades following her death. Aside from that, I would want to know more about her career plans for following the ending of her contract with Fox, what she wanted to accomplish, what were the roles she wanted, where she saw her career in 1967, 1972, 1982. On a personal level, since I am a therapist, I would probably ask probe her about her journal entries, her feelings—this is a fantasy, so I could go in that direction—I would be most curious about her relationship with Joe DiMaggio and if she truly considered a remarriage in her final months.


10. Any plans to write about Marilyn in the future?


Nearly the week I completed the editing process for ICON Volume 2, significant new information surfaced. Even now, with the approaching auction of the contents of Marilyn’s New York and Los Angeles filing cabinets, we have new information and evidence available which will be published in the auction catalogues. Collector Scott Fortner contacted me about the documents related to Marilyn considering the purchase of a Manhattan townhouse in late 1961, around the time Dr. Greenson was encouraging her to purchase a home in Los Angeles. How I wish I had access to that material during my research! Although Volume 1 is in its second edition, there is potential for Volume 2 to have one as well. As you know, I’ve been involved in the Goodnight, Marilyn Radio investigation into Marilyn’s death since February of 2015. I’ve appeared as Nina Boski and Randall Libero’s frequent guest and current weekly panel member for three seasons and will participate as an investigative team member for the Seeking the Truth Conference in Los Angeles in September. I’ve now acquired the 641-page LA District Attorney’s investigation materials and final report from 1982 and had the privilege of consulting with forensic experts such as Dr. Cyril Wecht; psychiatrist Dr. Reef Kareem; and suicide expert Dr. Scott Bonn. This 21st century investigation will yield new results and impact our perceptions about her death. This research is worthy of a Volume 3, of which Ben Ohmart, my publisher (BearManor Media), is very interested in supporting. So, I am currently researching and outlining ICON: The Life, Times & Films of Marilyn Monroe Volume 3/The 1982 & 2016 Investigations into Her Death. That’s just a working title. Each volume in denser and longer than the previous one; I believe the third will be the biggest of the trilogy. Things naturally align in threes, so I’m happy for a third volume.





Thank you so much, Gary, for the interview. 
Please visit Gary's Facebook group for ICON